Views: 33 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-12-15 Origin: Site
Citrulline is a type of α- Amino acid, with the chemical formula C6H13N3O3, is named "citrulline" because it was first obtained from watermelon.
Chinese name: Citrulline
Foreign name: Citrulline
Nickname: (S) -2-amino-5-urea valerate carbamoyl ornithine
Chemical formula: C6H13N3O3
Molecular weight: 175.19
CAS login number: 372-75-8
EINECS login number: 206-759-6
Melting point: 222 ℃
Water solubility: soluble in water
Density: 1.289 g/cm ³
Appearance: White crystalline
Citrulline is generated from ornithine and aminoformyl phosphate in the urea cycle, or as a byproduct of arginine to NO catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS).
Rheumatoid arthritis and citrulline
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with chronic synovitis as the main lesion. There are various anti citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs) in the body, and RA can not only have joint symptoms but also be accompanied by extra-articular symptoms.
Citrullination can induce the production of APCAs in the body, which are important indicators for the diagnosis, prediction of disease progression, and prognosis of RA. ACPAs act on multiple cells in RA and mediate immune damage mechanisms.
Studies have shown that environmental factors such as smoking and air pollution can cause citrullination in lung epithelial cells, suggesting that protein citrullination is an early marker of intracellular damage. Research has confirmed that guanidine is associated with autophagy, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETosis), and apoptosis, and is involved in the pathogenesis of RA
Citrullination is a physiological post-transcriptional modification that converts arginine to citrulline under the catalysis of a Ca+dependent peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD). Protein modification can form new epitopes, produce new antigens that are different from self antigens, and promote antigen presenting cells (APCs) to recognize and express new antigens, thereby improving the immunogenicity of proteins.